An enemy of smart growth is sprawl, sometimes called “suburban sprawl” or “urban sprawl.”  As Anthony Downs of the Brookings Institution says, “Sprawl is not any form of suburban growth, but a particular form.  Here’s what we mean by “sprawl”: 


            (1) unlimited outward expansion of development

            (2) low-density residential and commercial settlements

            (3) leapfrog development

            (4) fragmentation of powers over land use among many small localities

            (5) dominance of transportation by private cars

            (6) no centralized planning or control of land-use

            (7) widespread strip commercial development

            (8) great fiscal disparities among localities

            (9) segregation of types of land uses in different zones

            (1) reliance may lay on the trickle-down or filtering process to provide housing to low income households